The relation between neurodevelopmental status at one and eight years of age was investigated in a cohort of 207 infants born between 1979 and 1982 at < 33 weeks of gestation. The probability of a major disabling impairment at eight years was only 1 per cent among 164 children with normal neurodevelopment at one year, but 56 per cent for the 43 impaired children and 92 per cent for the 23 of these who had major disabling impairments. Close correspondence was found between the type of major impairment diagnosed at one and eight years. Neurodevelopmental status at one year also predicted the need for extra educational provision by eight years, with probabilities of 9 per cent for children without impairment at one year, 56 per cent for impaired children and 87 per cent for those with major impairments. Similarly, neurodevelopmental status predicted an IQ of more than 2 SD below the mean (< 70), with probabilities of 0, 30 per cent and 48 per cent, respectively.