A new strategy has been devised and used for the physical localization of genetically mapped restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) clones to barley chromosomes. Morphologically distinct translocation chromosomes from synchronized root-tip meristems were microisolated and their DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. Four RFLP clones were assigned to cytologically defined segments of chromosome 5. This related approximately one-third of the map length of linkage group 5 to approximately one-fifth of the mitotic metaphase length of chromosome 5. The technique may substantially contribute to the connection of the RFLP-based genetic linkage maps with cytological markers of the barley chromosomes.