Development of several organs that require inductive epithelial-mesenchymal interactions is impaired in LEF-1-deficient mice

Genes Dev. 1994 Nov 15;8(22):2691-703. doi: 10.1101/gad.8.22.2691.


Lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF-1) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is expressed in pre-B and T lymphocytes of adult mice, and in the neural crest, mesencephalon, tooth germs, whisker follicles, and other sites during embryogenesis. We have generated mice carrying a homozygous germ-line mutation in the LEF-1 gene that eliminates its protein expression and causes postnatal lethality. The mutant mice lack teeth, mammary glands, whiskers, and hair but show no obvious defects in lymphoid cell populations at birth. The LEF-1-deficient mice also lack the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the only neural crest-derived neuronal populations. Together, the pattern of these defects suggest an essential role for LEF-1 in the formation of several organs and structures that require inductive tissue interactions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Embryonic Induction
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development*
  • Epithelium / embryology*
  • Genes, Lethal
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Hair / embryology
  • Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / embryology
  • Mesoderm / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Neural Crest / embryology
  • Tooth / embryology
  • Transcription Factors / analysis*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Trigeminal Nerve / embryology


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Lef1 protein, mouse
  • Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1
  • Transcription Factors