Effect of microwave pretreatment on heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens in fried beef patties

Food Chem Toxicol. 1994 Oct;32(10):897-903. doi: 10.1016/0278-6915(94)90087-6.

Abstract

To investigate a method to reduce the amount of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines formed during frying of ground beef, the mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98 was assessed and the amount of known heterocyclic amines was determined by solid-phase extraction and HPLC. The beef patties received microwave treatment for various times before frying. Microwave pretreatment for 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 3 min before frying at either 200 degrees C or 250 degrees C for 6 min per side reduced heterocyclic aromatic amine precursors (creatine, creatinine, amino acids, glucose), water, and fat up to 30%, in the patties and resulted in a decrease in mutagenic activity up to 95%. The sum of the four heterocyclic aromatic amines shown to be present--2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)--decreased three- to nine-fold compared with control, non-microwaved beef patties fried under identical conditions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amines / analysis*
  • Amines / metabolism
  • Amines / radiation effects
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Amino Acids / radiation effects
  • Animals
  • Carcinogens / analysis
  • Carcinogens / metabolism
  • Carcinogens / radiation effects*
  • Carcinogens / toxicity
  • Cattle
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cooking
  • Creatine / metabolism
  • Creatine / radiation effects
  • Creatinine / metabolism
  • Creatinine / radiation effects
  • Food Irradiation
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glucose / radiation effects
  • Heterocyclic Compounds / analysis
  • Heterocyclic Compounds / metabolism
  • Heterocyclic Compounds / radiation effects
  • Imidazoles / metabolism
  • Imidazoles / toxicity
  • Meat / analysis
  • Meat / radiation effects*
  • Microwaves*
  • Mutagenicity Tests
  • Mutagens / analysis
  • Mutagens / metabolism
  • Mutagens / radiation effects*
  • Mutagens / toxicity
  • Quinolines / metabolism
  • Quinolines / toxicity
  • Quinoxalines / metabolism
  • Quinoxalines / toxicity
  • Salmonella / drug effects
  • Salmonella / genetics

Substances

  • Amines
  • Amino Acids
  • Carcinogens
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Imidazoles
  • Mutagens
  • Quinolines
  • Quinoxalines
  • 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline
  • 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline
  • 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine
  • 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline
  • Creatinine
  • Glucose
  • Creatine