We describe eight patients with a distinct electrocardiographic pattern of anterior wall myocardial infarction characterized by three main features: (1) a pattern of 'transmural ischemia' (ST-elevation with positive T-wave) in non-consecutive leads: a VL and V2, and two different types of ST-depression; (2) a pattern of 'true reciprocal changes' (ST-depression and negative T-wave) in III and a VF; (3) a pattern of 'sub-endocardial ischemia' (ST-depression with positive T-wave) in V4-5, while ST in V3 was either isoelectric or depressed. We characterize the electrocardiographic features and correlate them with the echocardiographic, radionuclide, and angiographic data. All patients admitted to the coronary care unit from January 1990 to April 1992 with evolving acute myocardial infarction were evaluated prospectively. Patients whose admission electrocardiogram met the description above were included. The electrocardiographic evolution, echocardiographic, Technetium MIBI tomography, and coronary angiography are described. Of 471 patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction, admitted to the coronary care unit during the study period, eight patients met the inclusion criteria (1.7% of acute anterior wall myocardial infarction). Echocardiographic studies revealed mid-anterior hypokinesis in two patients, anterior and apical hypokinesis in one, and no wall motion abnormality in four patients. Technetium MIBI tomography, done in five patients, was consistent with mid-anterior or midanterolateral infarction without involvement of the septum or apex. Coronary angiography, performed in seven patients, demonstrated significant obstruction of the first diagonal branch in all of the patients. In four patients, the diagonal occlusion was the only significant coronary lesion in the left coronary artery.
Conclusion: Most of the anterior myocardial infarctions also involve the septal and apical regions. Anterior wall myocardial infarctions limited to the mid-anterior or mid-anterolateral wall, without apical or septal wall involvement are relatively rare. This study describes a special electrocardiographic form of anterior wall acute myocardial infarction. This distinct electrocardiographic pattern represents true mid-anterior wall myocardial infarction, caused by occlusion of a first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The septal and apical regions are not involved because the blood supply via the left anterior descending artery is not interrupted.