4NQO carcinogenesis: a mouse model of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

Head Neck. Sep-Oct 1994;16(5):424-32. doi: 10.1002/hed.2880160506.


Background: A murine model of oral cavity carcinogenesis is needed to study the molecular aspects of malignant transformation. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), a water-soluble carcinogen, produces squamous cell carcinoma in rodents. Protocols were designed to investigate the temporal aspects of neoplastic transformation.

Methods: 4NQO was applied topically to mouse palates for up to 16 weeks. Mice were observed and killed from 24 to 49 weeks.

Results: A spectrum of lesions ranging from atypia to moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was produced. The severity of the lesions corresponded to the duration of treatment and the length of observation. There was no gross or microscopic evidence of an inflammatory reaction to 4NQO. The lesions were focal and normal mucosa predominated in the treated mice.

Conclusion: 4NQO reliably produced preneoplastic and malignant oral cavity lesions, which morphologically and histologically mimic human head and neck cancer. Lesions develop long after 4NQO exposure and without an inflammatory response. Thus, the model should be useful for molecular analysis of neoplastic transformation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide / adverse effects*
  • Animals
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / chemically induced
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred CBA
  • Mouth Mucosa / drug effects
  • Mouth Mucosa / pathology
  • Mouth Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Mouth Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Palatal Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Palatal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Precancerous Conditions / chemically induced
  • Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • Time Factors
  • Tongue / drug effects
  • Tongue / pathology
  • Tongue Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Tongue Neoplasms / pathology


  • 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide