Random-effects regression models for clustered data with an example from smoking prevention research

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1994 Aug;62(4):757-65. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.62.4.757.


A random-effects regression model is proposed for analysis of clustered data. Unlike ordinary regression analysis of clustered data, random-effects regression models do not assume that each observation is independent but do assume that data within clusters are dependent to some degree. The degree of this dependency is estimated along with estimates of the usual model parameters, thus adjusting these effects for the dependency resulting from the clustering of the data. A maximum marginal likelihood solution is described, and available statistical software for the model is discussed. An analysis of a dataset in which students are clustered within classrooms and schools is used to illustrate features of random-effects regression analysis, relative to both individual-level analysis that ignores the clustering of the data, and classroom-level analysis that aggregates the individual data.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Attitude to Health
  • Computers
  • Health Promotion
  • Humans
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Schools
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Students