A patient is presented who developed prosopagnosia with a recent occipitotemporal infarct in the distribution of the right posterior cerebral artery. He did not have topographical agnosia or object agnosia. He regained the ability to recognize faces of familiar persons, whereas he remained unable to identify faces of persons whom he met after the disease onset. This case demonstrates that prosopagnosia may occur as a deficit of matching a perceived face to a memory store of the face, and that the failure to recognize unfamiliar faces may be due to the inability to form memory stores of new faces. These deficits can occur in association with a lesion confined to the right occipitotemporal region.