In the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, hyperthermia has been demonstrated to enhance tumor necrosis from radiation therapy. The current study reports the clinical course of patients treated with this neoadjuvant therapy regimen. Forty-four patients with deep, undisturbed, nonmetastatic, high grade soft tissue sarcomas completed a neoadjuvant treatment protocol with combined hyperthermia and radiation therapy followed by wide surgical resection. Negative surgical margins were obtained in 40 patients. There was one local recurrence, thus yielding a local control rate of 97.5%. All other failures were either through regional lymphatic spread or pulmonary metastasis. As a group, the patients at 36 months had a 72% overall and a 58% disease-free survival. The most common pathologic diagnosis was malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), which demonstrated a 36-month survival of 52% vs. 82% for others (P = 0.02). Tumor size was not prognostically significant for disease free or overall survival (P = 0.13). Those patients with surgical margins < 1 cm had a significantly lower disease-free survival and overall survival in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.02 and P = 0.006, respectively). Overall survival did not correlate with either the number of hyperthermia treatments received or the amount of tumor necrosis. Although this neoadjuvant protocol results in excellent local control rates, overall survival rates are comparable to adjuvant therapy employing radiation alone.