Transplantation of fetal porcine islet-like cell clusters (ICC) reverses diabetes in experimental animals. We have now transplanted porcine ICC to ten insulin-dependent diabetic kidney-transplant patients. All patients received standard immunosuppression and, at ICC transplantation, antithymocyte globulin or 15-deoxyspergualin. ICC were injected intraportally or placed under the kidney capsule of the renal graft. Four patients excreted small amounts of porcine C-peptide in urine for 200-400 days. In one renal-graft biopsy specimen, morphologically intact epithelial cells stained positively for insulin and glucagon in the subcapsular space. We conclude that porcine pancreatic endocrine tissue can survive in the human body.