A gene (VRP1) encoding a novel proline-rich protein (verprolin) has been isolated from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a result of its hybridization to a chick vinculin cDNA probe. The deduced protein sequence contains 24% proline residues present as proline-rich motifs throughout the verprolin sequence. Several of these motifs resemble recently identified sequences shown to bind Src homology 3 (SH3) domains in vitro. Replacement of the wild-type VRP1 allele with a mutant allele results in strains that grow slower than wild-type strains and are temperature sensitive. The vrp1 mutants are impaired in both cell shape and size and display aberrant chitin and actin localization. We propose that verporlin is involved in the maintenance of the yeast actin cytoskeleton, through interactions with other proteins, possibly containing SH3 domains.