An early humoral immune response in peripheral blood following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccination

Vaccine. 1994 Aug;12(11):993-9. doi: 10.1016/0264-410x(94)90334-4.


The enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to examine the humoral immune response in 15 healthy volunteers immunized with either split or subunit inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine containing A/Beijing/353/89 (H3N2), A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) and B/Yamagata/16/88. The rapidity of the individual B-cell and serum antibody response was examined in lymphocyte and serum samples collected at various time intervals after vaccination. A rapid serological response was detected with increases in antibody titre detected in the majority of volunteers by 7-8 days postvaccination. Influenza-specific plasma cells were detected as early as 4 days postvaccination, higher numbers of IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were observed which peaked at 7-8 days postvaccination. The number of ASCs then declined, with low numbers of cells detected at 11 days postvaccination. Influenza-specific IgA ASCs were predominantly of the IgA1 subclass. This rapid immune response may have a bearing on future vaccination policies of unimmunized 'at risk groups' in times of high influenza activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Hemolytic Plaque Technique
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes / biosynthesis
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated