Influence of smoking on immunological responses to hepatitis B vaccine

Vaccine. 1994 Jul;12(9):771-2. doi: 10.1016/0264-410x(94)90283-6.


When 115 health-care workers participated in a study that monitored their serological responses to hepatitis B vaccine at regular intervals, it was found that smoking significantly affected their antibody titre responses adversely. The study group was randomly allocated into two comparable groups that received hepatitis B vaccine either in a rapid schedule (vaccination at 0, 1, 2 and 12 months) or a standard schedule-most commonly used worldwide-(vaccination at 0, 1, and 6 months). A significantly higher proportion of smokers, in both schedules, failed to seroconvert and to achieve higher antibody levels at month 3 (p = 0.01) and at month 13 (p = 0.0003). At month 7 a similar pattern was noted in smokers following the standard vaccination schedule (p < or = 0.05), but not in those following the rapid schedule.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Female
  • Health Personnel
  • Hepatitis B Antibodies / biosynthesis*
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Schedule
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Vaccination


  • Hepatitis B Antibodies
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines