A meta-analysis of randomized trials of prenatal smoking cessation interventions

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Nov;171(5):1328-34. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(94)90156-2.


Objective: Our purpose was to assess the effect of prenatal smoking interventions on rates of smoking cessation and low birth weight.

Study design: We used a meta-analysis model to compare and summarize smoking cessation and low birth weight outcomes with the risk ratio used as a common metric. We located 11 randomized, controlled trials with objective validation of smoking status; four of these studies also measured rates of low birth weight.

Results: Risk ratios for smoking cessation ranged from 0.9 to 7.1. The combined risk ratio for the homogeneous group of 10 studies was 1.50 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.86) after the outlier study with a risk ratio of 7.1 was excluded. This was a 50% increase in smoking cessation. Low birth weight risk ratios of 0.6 for two studies that achieved a 50% increase in cessation suggested that the incidence of low birth weight was decreased.

Conclusion: Prenatal smoking cessation interventions increase rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy, and there is evidence that they reduce the incidence of low birth weight.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / epidemiology
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / etiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third
  • Pregnancy*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking Cessation*