We treated 19 patients with anterior uveitis, episcleritis, or scleritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Adequate control of ocular inflammation was achieved in 16 patients (84%). Ocular inflammation was adequately controlled with corticosteroids alone, without systemic adverse effects, in only three patients, all of whom had anterior uveitis associated with ulcerative colitis. Systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs proved beneficial in six of seven patients, and one additional patient benefited from another anti-inflammatory drug (hydroxychloroquine sulfate). Systemic cytotoxic immunosuppressive therapy was used in the remaining seven patients, six of whom had bilateral disease. Ocular inflammation was controlled in six of these patients. Azathioprine was beneficial for scleritis but was less effective for anterior uveitis, especially in Crohn's disease, thus necessitating the use of another cytotoxic agent. HLA-B27-positive anterior uveitis was more refractory to corticosteroid therapy and was more likely to require systemic cytotoxic immunosuppressive therapy. With the medical and surgical strategies described, vision was improved or maintained in all patients in the study group.