Endosonography of neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Sep 15;733:425-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb17292.x.


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the foregut type are frequently smaller than 2 cm in diameter and mainly located in the pancreas or the gastric and duodenal wall. Conventional cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as transabdominal ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are limited by their inability to detect small tumors and especially those located within the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) allows detailed visualization of the whole pancreas and almost all parts of the gastric and duodenal walls. Therefore, EUS is an important diagnostic tool for the preoperative localization of NETs of the foregut type. Several studies performed in a retrospective manner, as well as two studies performed in a prospective manner, indicate a clear superiority of EUS as compared to CT, US, MRI, and also angiography in detecting NETs of the foregut type. Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy (SRS) also detects NETs of the foregut type in a very high percentage of cases, and the combination of EUS and SRS appears to increase the sensitivity even more. Thus EUS and also SRS should be employed early if NETs of the foregut type are suspected. Conventional imaging procedures such as US, CT, and MRI should be mainly used to exclude local and distant metastases.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Digestive System / diagnostic imaging
  • Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnostic imaging*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Ultrasonography / instrumentation
  • Ultrasonography / methods