Single lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains a controversial therapy. We retrospectively studied 48 consecutive recipients of single-lung allografts to determine if preoperative PH was associated with increased mortality or morbidity. Recipients were divided into two groups; those who did have preoperative PH, defined as mean pulmonary arterial pressure less than or equal to 30 mm Hg (n = 29; group 1), and those recipients with PH who had a mean pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 30 mm Hg (n = 19; group II). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased significantly after transplantation in recipients with PH. These values remained significantly higher as compared with those in recipients without pretransplantation PH. Postoperative pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scans demonstrated significant ventilation/perfusion mismatch in lung allografts with pretransplantation PH (p < 0.05). The mean duration of intensive care unit stay was significantly longer in recipients with PH. Although operative mortality was similar between the groups, preoperative PH was associated with significantly lower 1-year survival (53% versus 72%; p < 0.05) and New York Heart Association functional class (p < 0.05). We conclude that preoperative PH in single-lung transplant recipients is associated with significantly increased mortality, prolonged intensive care unit stay, and less symptomatic improvement. Thus, despite a shortage of donor organs, single-lung transplantation may be suboptimal therapy in patients with PH. Further study comparing single versus bilateral lung transplantation for PH is necessary.