The regulatory properties of NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in extracts of yeast and rat heart mitochondria were studied under identical conditions. Yeast NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase exhibits a low K0.5 for isocitrate and is activated by AMP and ADP, but is insensitive to ATP and Ca2+. In contrast, the rat heart NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase was insensitive to AMP, but was activated by ADP and by Ca2+ in the presence of ADP or ATP. Both yeast and rat heart oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were stimulated by ADP, but only the heart enzyme was activated by Ca2+. All the enzymes studied were activated by decreases in pH, but to differing extents. The effects of Ca2+, adenine nucleotides and pH were through K0.5 for isocitrate or 2-oxoglutarate. These observations are discussed with reference to the deduced amino acid sequences of the constituent subunits of the enzymes, where they are available.