Cytosine arabinoside (AraC) was administered as a continuous IV infusion to 15 dogs with malignant lymphoma at a dose of 300 mg/m2/d for 2 consecutive days. Dogs were re-examined 7 d after treatment for response to therapy and for hematologic toxicity. Regardless of response, all dogs were started on combination chemotherapy at this time. Other toxicities were reported by owners. No dog responded objectively to Ara-C treatment, although 1 dog with circulating lymphoblasts had partial regression of lymphadenopathy but persistent blastemia. Thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 200,000/microL) 7 days posttreatment was the most commonly encountered hematologic toxicity, occurring in 10 of 14 dogs. Three of these 10 dogs were also mildly neutropenic (neutrophil counts of 2000 to 3000 cell/microL). Nonhematologic toxicity occurred in 8 of 15 dogs and was principally gastrointestinal in nature and mild in severity. Cytosine arabinoside at a dose of 300 mg/m2/day was not considered an active drug for the induction of remission in dogs with lymphoma.