The major independent role played by anxiety and severe psychosocial problems (especially family ones) is demonstrated by this multivariate analysis of a five year prospective study of the development of new angina pectoris among almost 10,000 adult men (average annual incidence = 5.7/1,000). The independent effect of these two variables is considerably augmented by the other significant risk factors of age, total serum cholesterol, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, certain electrocardiographic abnormalities and diabetes mellitus. The presence of all seven risk factors (at a high level) increases the probability of angina pectoris developing within five years to 289/1,000 from 14/1,000, when these factors are low or absent. The wife's love and support is an important balancing factor, which apparently reduces the risk of angina pectoris even in the presence of high risk factors. The implications of these findings to the pathophysiology and prevention of angina are stressed.