The behavior of the primary cilia of 3Y1 cells in the interphase was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, using an antibody for tubulin. At 4.5 h after scraping a part of a confluent cell sheet, the primary cilia of cells facing the wound were located predominantly forward of the nucleus on the wounded side, and were oriented in the direction of the leading lamellae. Cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs), emanating from around the base of the cilia, were well developed in the leading lamellae on the wounded side. On the other hand, in the cells of an unperturbed area away from the wounded edge, the primary cilia remained randomly distributed near the nucleus. The position and a certain well-defined orientation of a pair of centrioles seem to play an important role for the development of cytoplasmic MTs, and consequently the orientation of the centrioles is controlled by the primary cilia.