Immunotherapy of cancer could be possible in cases in which competent effector T cells can be induced. Such an approach depends on expression of tumour-specific antigens by the tumour cells and on the availability of sufficient costimulatory support for activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here, a strategy for helper T cell recruitment for induction of tumour-specific cytotoxic immune responses is presented. Allogenic MHC class II molecules were introduced into tumour cells by cell fusion. These hybrid cells, when injected into mice, induced rejection of an established tumour. The contribution of CD4-expressing helper T cells in the induction phase and of CD8-expressing T cells in the effector phase of the immune response was demonstrated. The approach described could be applicable to cases in which a suitable tumour antigen is present but not identified; it employs regulatory interactions that govern physiological immune responses and is designed to be minimally invasive.