A cDNA encoding rat liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was used to isolate human skeletal muscle AMPK cDNA clones. Human AMPK cDNA is more than 90% homologous to the rat sequence and predicts a protein of molecular mass 62.3 kDa, which closely agrees with the mass observed in Western blots of human tissues. AMPK antibodies were also shown to immunoprecipitate AMPK from human liver extracts. A cDNA probe was used to identify a 9.5kb transcript in several human tissues and to isolate human genomic clones. PCR mapping of rodent/human hybrid cell lines localised the human AMPK gene to chromosome 1, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation with a human genomic clone was used to sub-localise the human AMPK gene to 1p31.