A case-control study investigating risk factors for childhood brain tumors was conducted in the Ile de France (Paris region). During a 2-year period (1985-1987) 109 newly diagnosed cases were identified and, of these, 75 could be interviewed. In the same region, 113 population controls, frequency-matched for year of birth, were interviewed. Odds ratios adjusted for child's age and sex and for maternal age were estimated for each risk factor present in utero or during childhood by conditional logistic regression. Statistically significant associations were found for the following risk factors: farm residence, cat scratches, home treated with pesticides, passive smoking, family history of cancer, antihistamine intake. Intake of vitamin supplements during childhood was associated with a decrease in risk. This study is part of a multicentric case-control study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and its results will be compared for consistency, and pooled with those of other centers using the same protocol.