The objective of this study was to validate a dysphagia screening test to identify patients in the rehabilitation phase post stroke at risk for pneumonia, recurrent upper airway obstruction, and death. The setting was an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. One hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients met the following criteria: stroke confirmed by clinical history and neurological exam with compatible computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan; ages 20 to 90 years inclusive; and no known history of significant oral or pharyngeal anomaly. The main outcome measures were pneumonia, recurrent upper airway obstruction, and death. The Burke Dysphagia Screening Test (BDST) identified 11 of 12 patients who subsequently developed pneumonia, recurrent upper airway obstruction, or death (Fisher's exact test: p = .03). The relative risk for the occurrence of any of these complications was 7.65 times greater for those failing versus passing the BDST. The BDST identified 9 of 9 patients who developed pneumonia (Fisher's exact test: p = .01). We concluded that the BDST is of value in identifying patients in the rehabilitation phase poststroke at risk for pneumonia, recurrent upper airway obstruction, and death.