New recombinant strains of attenuated Salmonella typhi used as live oral vaccines elicit potent immune responses. This study examined the patterns of cytokine production and proliferation to specific S. typhi antigens in subjects orally immunized with attenuated S. typhi vaccines CVD 906, CVD 908, and CVD 908 expressing the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum. After immunization, sensitized lymphocytes were found in subjects' blood that exhibited significantly increased proliferative responses and interferon-gamma production to purified S. typhi flagella when compared with preimmunization levels. Significant negative correlations were observed between interleukin-4 production and both interferon-gamma production and proliferation to S. typhi flagella. These results demonstrate that oral immunization with attenuated S. typhi strains alone or with those carrying a foreign gene elicits strong systemic cell-mediated immunity to purified S. typhi antigens, including the production of cytokines compatible with T1-type responses.