The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years

J Sex Marital Ther. Fall 1994;20(3):163-77. doi: 10.1080/00926239408403428.


The term "gender role" appeared in print first in 1955. The term "gender identity" was used in a press release, November 21, 1966, to announce the new clinic for transsexuals at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. It was disseminated in the media worldwide, and soon entered the vernacular. The definitions of gender and gender identity vary on a doctrinal basis. In popularized and scientifically debased usage, sex is what you are biologically; gender is what you become socially; gender identity is your own sense or conviction of maleness or femaleness; and gender role is the cultural stereotype of what is masculine and feminine. Causality with respect to gender identity disorder is subdivisible into genetic, prenatal hormonal, postnatal social, and postpubertal hormonal determinants, but there is, as yet, no comprehensive and detailed theory of causality. Gender coding in the brain is bipolar. In gender identity disorder, there is discordancy between the natal sex of one's external genitalia and the brain coding of one's gender as masculine or feminine.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / psychology
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Disorders of Sex Development / history
  • Disorders of Sex Development / psychology
  • Female
  • Gender Identity*
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Terminology as Topic*
  • Transsexualism / etiology
  • Transsexualism / history
  • Transsexualism / psychology