Eotaxin was recently identified as the major eosinophil chemoattractant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained 3h after allergen challenge of sensitised guinea-pigs. We now report the cDNA cloning of this C-C chemokine. The 777 base-pair clone, pEo3122, consists of a 40 base 5' untranslated region, an open reading frame of 288 bases predicting a 73 amino acid mature protein plus a 23 amino acid signal peptide, and a 3' untranslated region of 449 bases containing a poly A tail. Northern blot analysis showed eotaxin mRNA in the lungs of naive and sensitised guinea-pigs, which was considerably increased after allergen challenge. Eotaxin may be an important mediator of eosinophil accumulation and activation in allergic reactions. As eotaxin stimulates human eosinophils, this chemokine and related molecules may be involved in human diseases such as asthma where eosinophil accumulation is a prominent feature.