Between Beveridge and Bismarck--options for health care financing in central and eastern Europe

World Health Forum. 1994;15(4):323-8.


A government-run national health service (the Beveridge model) can provide care for all at a reasonable cost but cannot avoid the dangers of poor quality. An insurance-based system (the Bismarck model) can achieve high quality but cannot ensure care for all at an affordable cost. The best chance of achieving a reliable financial base for health services is to use a combination of both these approaches.

MeSH terms

  • Europe, Eastern
  • Financing, Government
  • Health Care Reform / economics*
  • Humans
  • Insurance, Health / economics
  • Insurance, Health / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Models, Organizational*
  • National Health Programs / economics
  • National Health Programs / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Quality of Health Care