It has been shown that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. In this study, we measured total plasma homocysteine in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients and evaluated its correlation with atherosclerosis. Subjects consisted of healthy volunteers, and hemodialysis (HD) and CAPD patients. Fluoro-HPLC was employed to estimate plasma levels of total homocysteine (Hcy). Plasma levels of total Hcy were significantly higher in the CAPD patients compared with the HD patients and controls. Atherosclerotic score (ASS) was calculated, and the correspondence with plasma levels of total Hcy was analyzed. There was a significant correlation between plasma levels of total Hcy and ASS in CAPD patients. However, plasma levels of total Hcy did not correlate with age, plasma vitamin B6 level, residual renal function, protein catabolic rate (PCR), or KT/V. Our present study suggests that elevated concentrations of total plasma Hcy might play a role in the development of atherosclerosis in CAPD patients.