Stimulation of Adipogenesis in Fibroblasts by PPAR Gamma 2, a Lipid-Activated Transcription Factor

Cell. 1994 Dec 30;79(7):1147-56. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90006-x.

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor that has recently been identified as a key regulator of two fat cell enhancers. Transcriptional activation by PPAR gamma 2 is potentiated by a variety of lipids and lipid-like compounds, including naturally occurring polyunsaturated fatty acids. We demonstrate here that retroviral expression of PPAR gamma 2 stimulates adipose differentiation of cultured fibroblasts. PPAR activators promote the differentiation of PPAR gamma 2-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. C/EBP alpha, a second transcription factor induced during adipocyte differentiation, can cooperate with PPAR gamma 2 to stimulate the adipocyte program dramatically. Our results suggest that the physiologic role of PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to endogenous lipid activators and that this factor may serve to link the process of adipocyte differentiation to systemic lipid metabolism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Adipocytes / cytology*
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cell Line
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Fatty Acids / physiology
  • Fibroblasts / cytology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / biosynthesis
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology*
  • Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*

Substances

  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fatty Acids
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors