Twenty-two patients with intractable complex partial seizures (CPS) were treated with temporal lobectomy. Eighteen of 22 (82%) are seizure-free while receiving medication, with a mean follow-up time of 4 years. In each case, the clinical seizure pattern, interictal and ictal scalp EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neuropsychological testing, and results of the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) converged to indicate a localized abnormality. None of the patients in this series had mass lesions, vascular malformations, or cortical scars, but 18 of 22 had hippocampal atrophy on MRI and 20 had hippocampal sclerosis (HS) on pathologic examination. We believe it is possible, on the basis of the preoperative evaluation described, to identify a population of epileptic patients who will do very well postoperatively. Such patients do not require invasive EEG monitoring, and they represent approximately 20% of the patients treated surgically in our epilepsy unit in the past several years.