We studied the effects of reduced allergen exposure on bronchial hypereactivity (BHR) in two groups of asthmatic children allergic to house dust mites (HDM) living at high altitude for 9 continuous mo. In the first group the serum levels of total and HDM-specific IgE showed significant decreases after 3 mo (p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively) and after 9 mo (p < 0.001). Three months after returning home the total IgE levels had increased significantly (p < 0.001). The mean percentage fall in peak expiratory flow after exercise testing improved after 3 and 9 mo (p < 0.05), but it had deteriorated after 3 mo at home (p < 0.01). The methacholine PD20-FEV1 increased after 3 mo (p = 0.001) and further after 9 mo (p < 0.001), with a decrease after the 3-mo period at sea level (p = 0.01). In the second cohort there was a significant increase in HDM PD20-FEV1 after 6 and 9 mo (p < 0.001), with a slight decrease of magnitude of the allergen-induced late reaction. Histamine PD20-FEV1 significantly increased after 6 and 9 mo at high altitude, particularly in the challenges performed after the HDM bronchial provocation (p < 0.01). Our data demonstrate that allergen avoidance in asthmatic children not only decreases nonspecific BHR but also decreases allergen sensitivity, late allergen-induced bronchial reactions, and enhancement of BHR by allergen challenge.