How economic development and family planning programs combined to reduce Indonesian fertility

Demography. 1994 Feb;31(1):33-63.


This paper examines the contributions of family planning programs, economic development, and women's status to Indonesian fertility decline from 1982 to 1987. Methodologically we unify seemingly conflicting demographic and economic frameworks into a single "structural" proximate-cause model as well as controlling statistically for the targeted (nonrandom) placement of family planning program inputs. The results are consistent with both frameworks: 75% of the fertility decline resulted from increased contraceptive use, but was induced primarily through economic development and improved education and economic opportunities for females. Even so, the dramatic impact of the changes in demand-side factors (education and economic development) on contraceptive use was possible only because there already existed a highly responsive contraceptive supply delivery system.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Birth Rate / trends*
  • Developing Countries*
  • Family Planning Services / trends*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Indonesia
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Middle Aged
  • Population Control / trends*
  • Pregnancy
  • Socioeconomic Factors*