Surgery on the extraocular muscles of the eye is generally consisted a safe procedure which is associated with low morbidity and mortality. While infrequent, intra-operative complications occasionally occur. Tenotomy of multiple rectus muscles can result in interruption of the vascular supply to the anterior segment of the eye. Anterior segment ischemia (ASI) may result. This article reviews the complication of anterior segment ischemia as a result of strabismus surgery and its potential for producing permanent visual loss.