Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: a follow-up study of children from low-income families

Child Dev. 1994 Apr;65(2 Spec No):684-98.


Follow-up data, obtained 4-7 years after intervention ended, are presented for the Carolina Abecedarian Project, an experimental study of early childhood educational intervention for children from poverty families. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intervention conditions: educational treatment from infancy through 3 years in public school (up to age 8); preschool treatment only (infancy to age 5); primary school treatment only (age 5-8 years), or an untreated control group. Positive effects of preschool treatment on intellectual development and academic achievement were maintained through age 12. School-age treatment alone was less effective. Results generally supported an intensity hypothesis in that scores on cognitive and academic achievement measures increased as duration of treatment increased.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Education, Special*
  • Educational Status*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intellectual Disability / prevention & control*
  • Intellectual Disability / psychology
  • Intelligence*
  • Male
  • North Carolina
  • Poverty / psychology*
  • Social Environment
  • Wechsler Scales