WI-38 cell long-term quiescence model system: a valuable tool to study molecular events that regulate growth

J Cell Biochem. 1994 Apr;54(4):405-14. doi: 10.1002/jcb.240540407.


A number of cell culture model systems have been used to study the regulation of cell cycle progression at the molecular level. In this paper we describe the WI-38 cell long-term quiescence model system. By modulating the length of time that WI-38 cells are density arrested, it is possible to proportionately alter the length of the prereplicative or G-1 phase which the cell traverses after growth factor stimulation in preparation for entry into DNA synthesis. Through studies aimed at understanding the cause and molecular nature of the prolongation of the prereplicative phase, we have determined that gene expression plays an important role in establishing growth factor "competence" and that once the cell becomes "competent" there is a defined order to the molecular events that follow during the remainder of G-1. More specifically, we have determined that the prolongation represents a delay in the ability of long term quiescent cells to become fully "competent" to respond to growth factors which regulate progression through G-1 into S. This prolongation appears to occur as a result of changes during long term quiescence in the ability of immediate early G-1 specific genes (such as c-myc) to activate the expression of early G-1 specific genes (such as ornithine decarboxylase). While ODC is the first and thus far only growth associated gene identified as a target of c-myc (and the Myc/Max protein complex), it is likely that further studies in this model system will reveal other early G-1 growth regulatory genes. We anticipate that future follow-up studies in this model system will provide additional valuable information about the function of growth-regulatory genes in controlling growth factor responsiveness and cell cycle progression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Cell Count
  • Cell Division / physiology*
  • Cell Line
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • G1 Phase / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Growth Substances / physiology
  • Models, Biological*
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / physiology
  • Transcription Factors*


  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Growth Substances
  • Myc associated factor X
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Transcription Factors
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase