A prospective study was performed to compare the frequency of hypoglycemia in normal neonates appropriate for gestational age delivered by cesarean section and neonates delivered by normal vaginal deliveries (n = 60). Intrapartal and prenatal risk factors were recorded. A cord glucose reading and a glucose reading within the first 2 hours of age were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of < 40 mg/dl in a neonate. The study disclosed a 43% incidence of hypoglycemia in neonates delivered by cesarean section and a 37% incidence in neonates delivered vaginally. Neonates who were black, male, or both had a higher incidence of hypoglycemia. Other prenatal or intrapartal factors were not significantly associated with the development of hypoglycemia. The incidence of hypoglycemia in this study was much higher than in previous studies of neonates appropriate for gestational age that were performed before conduction anesthesia was widely used. Further studies should evaluate the possible impact of perinatal anesthesia on the development of transient neonatal hypoglycemia.