Tobacco use as a distal predictor of mortality among long-term narcotics addicts

Prev Med. 1994 Jan;23(1):61-9. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1994.1009.


Background: This study examined patterns of tobacco and narcotics use, associated morbidity, and subsequent mortality among long-term narcotics addicts.

Methods: The analysis included 405 patients selected from admissions to the California Civil Addict Program during 1962 through 1964. Measures were obtained at admission and at two face-to-face interviews conducted in 1974-1975 and 1985-1986 and included use of narcotics, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances, as well as morbidity and mortality information.

Results: For the 405 addicts interviewed initially in 1974-1975, the average age was 36.7 years, the mean age at onset of smoking was 13.1 years, and first narcotics use occurred at 18.4 years. Ninety-eight percent reported experience with cigarette smoking, 84% were currently smoking, and 31% tested positive for opiates by urinalysis. In 1985-1986, at the second interview, among the 328 interviewed, 74% reported current smoking and 32% tested positive for opiates. Seventy-seven (19%) had died. Major proximal causes of death included drug overdose, violence, and alcohol-related conditions. The death rate of the smokers identified in 1974-1975 was four times that of nonsmokers. The only other distal variable that predicted mortality was disability status in 1974-1975.

Conclusions: Smoking status and disability history were major distal predictors of subsequent death. However, tobacco-attributable mortality was directly substantiated as a proximal cause of death by only 16% of the death certificates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcoholism / complications
  • Alcoholism / mortality
  • Alcoholism / prevention & control
  • California / epidemiology
  • Cause of Death*
  • Death Certificates*
  • Disabled Persons / statistics & numerical data
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morbidity
  • Narcotics*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / mortality*
  • Smoking Prevention
  • Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / mortality
  • Substance-Related Disorders / prevention & control
  • Substance-Related Disorders / urine
  • Time Factors


  • Narcotics