The two interleukin-1 receptors play different roles in IL-1 actions

Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1994 Jul;72(1):9-14. doi: 10.1006/clin.1994.1100.


The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 binds to two cell-surface receptors. The type I receptor, an 80-kDa protein with a cytoplasmic domain of approximately 215 amino acids, mediates the biological effects of IL-1. The type II receptor, a 60-kDa protein with 29 cytoplasmic amino acids, binds IL-1 and thereby prevents it from binding to the type I receptor but does not deliver a biological signal. Thus, the type II receptor acts as a negative regulator of IL-1 actions. It can do so either as a membrane-bound molecule or subsequent to shedding from the cell surface to generate a so-called "soluble" receptor. Both the naturally produced soluble type II receptor and the recombinantly generated soluble type I receptor are effective inhibitors of IL-1 action. The soluble type I receptor has shown efficacy in some preclinical models of inflammatory diseases, as well as in an initial clinical trial in a setting of cutaneous allergy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 / physiology
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1 / chemistry
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1 / physiology*
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Solubility


  • Interleukin-1
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1
  • Recombinant Proteins