Human replication protein A (RPA) is a three-subunit protein that plays a central role in eukaryotic DNA replication, homologous recombination, and excision repair. We have previously reported the cloning and bacterial overexpression of the three RPA genes and have mapped them to chromosome 1 (RPA2), chromosome 7 (RPA3), and chromosome 17 (RPA1). We have now obtained yeast strains with artificial chromosomes carrying the three human RPA genes and report the more detailed genomic mapping of RPA. RPA1 was mapped to chromosome 17p13.3 using a combination of PCR amplification of somatic cell hybrids and radiation hybrids containing chromosome 17 fragments. RPA2 was mapped to chromosome 1p35 by PCR amplification of somatic cell hybrids of chromosome 1 and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. RPA3 was mapped to chromosome 7p22 by Southern analysis and PCR amplification of somatic cell hybrids of chromosome 7 as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization. Since RPA is an essential component of major metabolic events affecting DNA, the physical mapping of the genes for it may help elucidate the biochemical basis of genetic disorders involving DNA metabolism.