The nucleotide sequence of a 55098 bp region from the right end of the genome of a virulent African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate (Malawi LIL20/1) has been determined. Translation of the sequence identified 67 major open reading frames (ORFs) which are closely spaced and read from both DNA strands. At six positions intergenic tandem repeat arrays are found. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of encoded proteins with protein sequence databases identified a number of homologies. These include three subunits of RNA polymerase, a protein with homology to transcription factor SII (TFSII), a DNA ligase, two subunits of mRNA capping enzyme, a DNA topoisomerase type II, a dUTPase, a protein kinase, three helicases, a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, a protein with homology to the nif S and nif S-like proteins identified in some bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a protein with homology to both a myeloid differentiation primary response antigen (MyD116) and to a herpes simplex virus-encoded neurovirulence-associated protein (ICP34.5), a protein with homology to the ASFV-encoded structural protein p22, two proteins with homology to copies of the ASFV-encoded multigene family 360 and one protein with homology to the ASFV-encoded multigene family 110. Four genes encode proteins which have homology to each other and constitute a new multigene family (MGF100). Nine ORFs encode proteins which contain predicted transmembrane domains. The possible functions of these predicted ASFV-encoded proteins are discussed and the evolutionary relationship of ASFV to other viruses are considered. Despite the similarities in genome structure and replication strategy of ASFV with poxviruses, sequence similarity between them is low and the organization of ASFV-encoded genes is not colinear with that of the orthopoxviruses.