Candida albicans has been shown to vary in its phenotypic expression with the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Isolates of C. albicans were obtained from 45 patients with HIV infection during the progression of their disease and differentiated using two methods. The first utilized the morphological characteristics of colonies, and the second method utilized a small portion of C. albicans DNA as a probe on Southern-transferred, EcoRI-digested C. albicans genomic DNA. In 67% of the patients a single strain of C. albicans, as determined by the DNA analysis, was isolated from each individual. The phenotypic expression of the genetically identical strains varied considerably over the experimental period with one morphotype being predominant. These results showed that the genotype of C. albicans persisted in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, but that the phenotypical expression of this strain changed. A novel finding in this study was that 18 strains of C. albicans had DNA which did not hybridize to the probe used.