Human immunodeficiency viruses regulated by alternative trans-activators: genetic evidence for a novel non-transcriptional function of Tat in virion infectivity

EMBO J. 1994 Jun 15;13(12):2886-96.


Thirteen genetically altered HIV-1 proviruses were created. These various genomes can be segregated into three groups: (i) a set of tat(-) viruses that have a functional HTLV-I Tax inserted in nef; (ii) a set of tat(-) viruses with Gal4 binding sites inserted in U3 and a Gal4-VP16 cDNA inserted in nef; and (iii) a set of tat(+) HIV genomes that are 5' and 3' TAR(-) and are Gal4-binding-site(+) in U3 and Gal4-VP16(+) in nef. We found that viruses in groups (i) and (ii), although tat(-), were fully complemented for viral gene expression based on quantitative measurements of viral protein synthesis and on the visualization by electron microscopy of the proper assembly of morphologically correct virions. Interestingly, group (i) and (ii) virions were defective in a spreading cytopathic infection when assayed in T-lymphocytes. Group (iii) viruses, although capable of producing intact Tat protein, also could not use Tat for transcription/gene expression because of the TAR(-) genotype. However, this class of viral genomes produced viruses that were highly infectious and cytopathic in primary and in continuously propagated T-lymphocytes. These three groups of viruses are all transcriptionally Tat-TAR independent. Their distinct differences in infectivity/cytopathicity provide genetic evidence that Tat provides a transcriptionally independent function in determining infectivity and cytopathicity in the setting of a spreading viral infection. Given that all HIV virions normally contain four intact copies of TAR RNA, our findings suggest a re-examination of whether Tat could be a virion-TAR-associated protein and the possible implications of this for virus infectivity/cytopathicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / genetics*
  • Gene Products, nef / genetics
  • Gene Products, tat / genetics*
  • Gene Products, tax / genetics
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Genetic Engineering
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / growth & development
  • HIV-1 / pathogenicity*
  • HIV-1 / ultrastructure
  • HeLa Cells
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / genetics
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Proviruses / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / genetics*
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Virion / genetics
  • Virion / growth & development
  • Virion / pathogenicity
  • Virulence / genetics
  • nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus


  • Fungal Proteins
  • Gal-VP16
  • Gene Products, nef
  • Gene Products, tat
  • Gene Products, tax
  • Trans-Activators
  • nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus