Risk-factors for Parkinson's disease: case-control study in the province of Cáceres, Spain

Acta Neurol Scand. 1994 Mar;89(3):164-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.1994.tb01655.x.


This case-control study, performed in a mixed rural and urban province, of 74 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 148 unselected age and sex-matched controls, attempted to look possible risk factors for PD. Rural living, well-water drinking, positive family history for PD and postural tremor, were associated to an increased risk for PD, with results regarding exposure to pesticides near to statistical significance. Alcohol-drinking habit in males were associated to a decreased risk for PD, with results regarding cigarette-smoking habit in males near to statistical significance. We did not find association between the risk for PD and the following variables: 1) exposure to industrial toxins; 2) agricultural work; 3) cranial trauma; 4) previous common illnesses including some infections, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease and thyroid disease; 5) coffee and tea drinking habits.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology*
  • Parkinson Disease / etiology*
  • Pesticides / toxicity
  • Risk Factors
  • Rural Population
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Pesticides