Protection provided by Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in Los Angeles County: a case-control study

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Apr;13(4):274-80. doi: 10.1097/00006454-199404000-00006.


The objective was to assess the degree of disease control and to evaluate the protective efficacy of licensed Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines (HbOC, PRP-OMP, PRP-D) used routinely in children 2 to 35 months of age. We conducted a case-control study in Los Angeles County between January 1, 1991, and December 31, 1992, and a cohort analysis of Hib cases between 1983 and 1992. For the case-control study 105 cases of invasive Hib disease were identified and 767 geographically and age-matched controls were selected by random digit telephone dialing. Sixteen HbOC vaccine failures occurred > 14 days after a single dose of vaccine, 6 vaccine failures after 2 doses and 3 failures after 3 doses; 2 cases occurred 6 and 12 days, respectively, after an initial dose of HbOC. The protective efficacy of a single HbOC vaccine dose was 71.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 37.5 to 87.2%). After 2 doses the efficacy was 88.8% (95% CI, 59.5 to 96.9%) and after 3 doses it was 94.4% (95% CI, 68.0% to 99.0%). Similar 95% CIs were seen for 1 and 2 doses of PRP-OMP vaccine. Adjustment of efficacy estimates for potential confounding variables did not significantly alter the results. Despite relatively low rates of immunization (20 to 60%) the rates of Hib disease decreased strikingly between 1990 and 1992 (from 24.2 to 4.4/100,000 children < 5 years of age). The HbOC conjugate vaccine, used predominantly but incompletely during this period, provided substantial protection against invasive Hib disease in children immunized between 2 and 35 months of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Haemophilus Infections / epidemiology
  • Haemophilus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Haemophilus Vaccines*
  • Haemophilus influenzae*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Los Angeles / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Serotyping


  • Haemophilus Vaccines