Depressive symptomatology and smoking among persons with diabetes

Res Nurs Health. 1994 Aug;17(4):273-82. doi: 10.1002/nur.4770170406.


The purpose of this study was to determine whether (a) symptoms of depression are more prevalent and severe among diabetic smokers than diabetic nonsmokers, (b) smoking is related to depressive symptomatology among diabetic patients, and (c) there is a positive relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and severity of depressive symptoms. Diabetic non-smokers (n = 103) and diabetic smokers (n = 83) were surveyed regarding symptoms of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Depressive symptomatology was more prevalent and severe among smokers than nonsmokers. Smoking was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology. Among smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was independently associated with cognitive symptoms of depression.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Depression / psychology
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Missouri / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Regression Analysis
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Socioeconomic Factors