In a previous study, children 18 to 36 months of age and seropositive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were vaccinated with an RSV subunit vaccine (PFP-1) consisting of the viral fusion protein. Vaccines developed substantial increases in anti-fusion and neutralizing antibody and exhibited protection against RSV infection through one RSV epidemic, in comparison to controls. This present study of the same cohort was undertaken to determine the persistence of antibody responses and immunity to reinfection, as well as to monitor for enhanced disease upon subsequent RSV infection during the second RSV season after vaccination. Vaccinees continued to have greater ELISA specific anti-fusion (F) antibody responses than controls up to 18 months after vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titres were not as durable, and the attack rates for RSV in the second winter season after vaccination (25% in vaccines versus 42% in controls) were not significantly different (p = 0.23). Nevertheless, 'high-responder' subgroups may have had residual protection into the second postvaccination year. Enhanced illness did not occur. PFP-1 is immunogenic and appears safe, but yearly reimmunization may be necessary to maintain immunity to RSV infection.