Long-term evaluation of drug abuse resistance education

Addict Behav. Mar-Apr 1994;19(2):113-25. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(94)90036-1.


Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is the most prevalent school-based drug-use prevention program in the United States, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness. Results from a longitudinal evaluation of the program in 36 schools in Illinois provide only limited support for DARE's impact on student's drug use immediately following the intervention, and no support for either continued or emerging impact on drug use 1 or 2 years after receiving DARE instruction. In addition, DARE had only limited positive effects on psychological variables (i.e., self-esteem) and no effect on social variables (e.g., peer resistance skills). Possible substantive and methodological explanations for the relative lack of DARE's effectiveness observed in this study are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology
  • Alcohol Drinking / prevention & control*
  • Alcohol Drinking / psychology
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Least-Squares Analysis
  • Logistic Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Marijuana Smoking / epidemiology
  • Marijuana Smoking / prevention & control*
  • Marijuana Smoking / psychology
  • Odds Ratio
  • Program Evaluation
  • Risk Factors
  • School Health Services / standards*
  • School Health Services / statistics & numerical data
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / prevention & control*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology