Intermittent antegrade warm versus cold blood cardioplegia: a prospective, randomized study

Ann Thorac Surg. 1994 Jul;58(1):41-8; discussion 48-9. doi: 10.1016/0003-4975(94)91069-3.


A prospective, randomized study was performed in 200 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting to compare the myocardial protection obtained with intermittent antegrade warm versus cold blood cardioplegia. Preoperative and surgical characteristics of the two cohorts were similar. Intermittent antegrade infusion of warm blood cardioplegia failed to achieve sustained electromechanical arrest of the heart in 13%. The only difference in clinical outcomes was the more frequent spontaneous return to sinus rhythm after the unclamping of the aorta in the warm group (88% versus 70%, p = 0.002). Mortality (1% each) and myocardial infarction (2% and 4%) rates were similar. Rates of increase in serum activity of the isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), CK-MB mass concentration, and cardiac troponin-T level as well as total release of troponin T were significantly lower in the warm group, and fewer patients in this group had a clinically significant increase in serum CK-MB mass (20% versus 39%, p = 0.005) and troponin T (20% versus 56%, p = 0.00001). Thus, intermittent antegrade warm blood cardioplegia is appropriate and clinically safe; the lower release of biochemical markers of myocardial damage suggests improved protection during first-time coronary artery bypass grafting.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood*
  • Coronary Artery Bypass*
  • Creatine Kinase / blood
  • Female
  • Heart Arrest, Induced / methods*
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control*
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Prospective Studies
  • Temperature
  • Troponin / blood
  • Troponin T


  • Biomarkers
  • Isoenzymes
  • Troponin
  • Troponin T
  • Creatine Kinase